Lebanon, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, has Israel to its south and Syria to it east. Most of the country is covered by the Lebanon Mountains on the west while the Anti-Lebanon Range is on the east. In the middle is the Bekaa Valley, which is the main agricultural area. Lebanon has a violent recent history, with parts of the country being occupied by Israeli and Syrian forces at some time.
Lebanon - Facts and Figures
- Official name is Republic of Lebanon.
- Terrain comprises of a narrow coastal plain with the Bekaa Valley separating the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains.
- Lebanon’s climate is Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Heavy snow falls on the mountains during winter.
- Lebanon’s land boundaries are 454 kilometers in total while 225 kilometers are coastline.
- Area: 10,400 sq km, of which 10,230 sq km is land and 170 sq km is water.
- Lebanon and Syria were joined under the Ottoman Empire but split after World War I and handed over to a French mandate. Full independence was declared in 1941.
- Population is about 3.8 million, comprising 95% Arabs and 4% Armenians.
- Lebanon’s official language is Arabic while French, English and Syrian are also spoken.
- About 60% of the population is Muslim (Shiite, Sunni, Druze, Ismailis and Alawite). Christians make up about 39%.
- Capital is Beirut, while other large cities include Tripoli and Sidon.
- Major exports are jewelry, inorganic chemicals, consumer goods, fruit, tobacco, textiles and paper.
- The local currency is the Lebanese pound.
- Agricultural products are citrus fruits, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, sheep and goats.
- Major trading partners are Syria, United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Switzerland, Saudi Arabia, Italy, France, Germany, China, United States and United Kingdom.
- Republic-based government.