Turkey straddles Europe and Asia at the northeast end of the Mediterranean Sea. To the north is the Black Sea and to the west is the Aegean Sea. Turkey has many neighbors from Europe and Asia. Greece and Bulgaria are to the west, Russia, Ukraine, and Romania, through the Black Sea, are to the north and northwest, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran lie in the east while the south features Syria and Iraq. The country is divided by Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosporus.
Turkey - Facts and Figures
- Official name is Republic of Turkey.
- Turkey is a mostly mountainous area with narrow coastal plains and a treeless central plateau.
- Climate is temperate with hot and dry summers while winters are mild and wet. Interior weather, though, is harsher.
- Turkey’s land borders are 2,627 kilometers long in total. Its coastline is 7,200 kilometers.
- Area: 780,580 sq km, of which 770,760 sq km is land and 9,820 sq km is water.
- Turkey was formed in 1923 from what remained of the Ottoman Empire, which ruled for around 600 years.
- Population is around 70.5 million. Turkish people comprise 80% of the population with the rest being Kurdish.
- The official language is Turkish. Kurdish, Dimli, Azeri and Kabardian are also spoken.
- Islam is practiced by 99.8% while Christians and Jews comprise 0.2%.
- Capital is Ankara. Other large cities are Istanbul, Izmir, Bursa, Adana and Gaziantep.
- Major exports are apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metals and transport equipment.
- The local currency is the Turkish lira.
- Agricultural products are tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus products and livestock.
- Major trading partners include Germany, United Kingdom, United States, Italy, France, Spain, Russia and China.
- Government is a republican parliamentary democracy.