Egypt is the gateway to Africa from the Middle East. It is bordered on the west by Libya and on the south by Sudan. On the east is the Red Sea and Israel. Egypt is divided by the Nile River, both sides being arid and hot. The Nile flows north from around 161 kilometers south of the Mediterranean and its tributaries empty into the sea between Alexandria and Port Said.
Egypt - Facts and Figures
- Official name is Arab Republic of Egypt.
- The terrain of Egypt is dominated by a vast desert plateau as well as the Nile valley and delta.
- Climate is mostly desert with hot and dry summers and moderate winters.
- Egypt’s land boundaries are 2,689 kilometers while it has 2,450 kilometers of coastline.
- Area: 1,001,450 sq km, of which 995,450 sq km is land and 6,000 sq km is water.
- Egypt has a rich history of civilization and culture. Islam came to Egypt in the seventh centuries with the arrival of the Arabs.
- Population is about 80 million, of which 98% are Egyptian while the rest are comprised of Berber, Nubian, Bedouin, Beja, Greek, Armenian, Italian and French.
- The official language is Arabic. English and French are also spoken.
- Islam is the majority religion practiced by 90% of Egyptians, most of whom are Sunnis. Other religions include Coptic (9%) and Christian.
- Capital is Cairo. Other cities are Alexandria, Giza, Shubra el Khema and El Mahalla el Kubra.
- Major exports are machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals and wood products. Natural resources are petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead and zinc.
- The local currency is the Egyptian pound.
- Agricultural products are cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables, cattle, water buffalo, sheep and goats.
- Major trading partners are Italy, United States, Syria, Germany, Spain, France, China, United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia.
- Government is a republic.
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